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Senin, 02 April 2012

Pengertian Active And Passive Voice (Bhs. Inggris X)


Pengertian Active And Passive Voice (Bhs. Inggris X)

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE
Kalimat Aktif dan Kalimat Pasif
Kata kerja transitif mempunyai dua voice (ragam gramatikal), aktif dan pasif.
1) Bentuk aktif adalah orang, binatang, atau benda yang ditunjukkan oleh subjek dikatakan melakukan sesuatu pada yang lain.
Contoh: Karim killed a tiger. Karim membunuh seekor harimau
2) Bentuk pasif adalah orang, binatang atau benda dikatakan menderita sesuatu dari sesuatu yang lain.


Contoh: A tiger was killed by Karim. Seekor harimau dibunuh oleh Karim
Bentuk pasif :
To Be + Past Participle
Aturan-aturan :
a) Kata kerja transitif tidak digunakan dalam bentuk pasif, kecuali kalau kata kerja itu menggunakan cognate object dalam bentuk aktif.
Aktif : She sang a fine song. Ia menyanyikan sebuah nyanyian yang merdu
Pasif : A fine song was sung by her. Sebuah nyanyian yang merdu dinyanyikan olehnya
b) Bilamana kalimat diubah dari bentuk aktif ke pasif, objek untuk kata kerja aktif menjadi subjek untuk kalimat kerja pasif.
objek untuk kata kerja aktif :
Aktif: Linda can make tarts. Linda dapat membuat kue tart
Subjek untuk kata kerja pasif :
Pasif: Tarts can be made by Linda
c) Retained object (objek yang tetap dipakai/dipertahankan dalam pasif)
Dua buah objek dalam kalimat aktif, ketika diubah menjadi kalimat pasif, masih tetap ada sebuah objek dipertahankan, objek ini dinamakan retained object. Objek ini mungkin objek tak langsung dari kata kerja aktif atau objek langsung dari kata kerja aktif.
Objek tak langsung dari kata kerja aktif
Kata Kerja aktif Kata kerja pasif
We gave him a prize A prize was given him by us
Objek langsung dari kata kerja aktif
Kata Kerja aktif Kata kerja pasif
We gave him a prize He was given a prize by us
Berikut contoh-contoh kalimat aktif yang dirubah menjadi kalimat pasif dalam bentuk tenses :
1) Simple present
Aktif
John bites Mary
John doesn’t bite Mary
Does John bite Mary?
What does John do?
Who bites Mary?
Who does John bite?

Pasif
Mary is bitten by John
Mary isn’t bitten by John
Is Mary bitten by John?
what is done by John?
Who is Mary bitten by?
Who is bitten by John?
2) Simple continuous
Aktif
John is biting Mary
John isn’t biting Mary
Is John biting Mary?
What is John doing?

Who is biting Mary?

Who is John biting?



Pasif

Mary is being bitten by John

Mary isn’t being bitten by John

Is Mary being bitten by John?

What is being done by John?

Who is Mary being bitten by?

Who is being bitten by John?

3) Present perfect

Aktif

John has bitten Mary

John hasn’t bitten Mary

Has John bitten Mary?

What has John done?

Who has bitten Mary?

Who has John bitten?



Pasif

Mary has been bitten by John

Mary hasn’t been bitten by John

Has Mary been bitten by John?

What has been done by John?

Who has Mary been bitten by?

Who has been bitten by John?

4) Present perfect continuous

Aktif

John has been biting Mary

John hasn’t been biting Mary

Has John been biting Mary?

What has John been doing?

Who has been biting Mary?

Who has John been biting?



Pasif

Mary has been being bitten by John

Mary hasn’t been being bitten by John

Has Mary been being bitten by John?

What has been being done by John?

Who has Mary been being bitten by?

Who has been being bitten by John?

5) Simple past

Aktif

John bit Mary

John didn’t bite Mary

Did John bite Mary?

What did John do?

Who bit Mary?

Who did John bite?


Pasif

Mary was bitten by John

Mary wasn’t bitten by John

Was Mary bitten by John?

What was done by John?

Who was Mary bitten by?

Who was bitten by John?

6) Past continuous

Aktif

John was biting Mary

John wasn’t biting Mary

Was John biting Mary?

What was John doing?

Who was biting Mary?

Who was John biting?



Pasif

Mary was being bitten by John

Mary wasn’t being bitten by John

Was Mary being bitten by John?

What was being done by John?

Who was Mary being bitten by?

Who was being bitten by John?

7) Past perfect

Aktif

John had bitten Mary

John hadn’t bitten Mary

Had John bitten Mary?

What had John done?

Who had bitten Mary?

Who had John bitten?



Pasif

Mary had been bitten by John

Mary hadn’t been bitten by John

Had Mary been bitten by John?

What had been done by John?

Who had Mary been bitten by?

Who had been bitten by John?

8) Past perfect continuous

Aktif

John had been biting Mary

John hadn’t been biting Mary

Had John been biting Mary?

What had John been doing?

Who had been biting Mary?

Who had John been biting?



Pasif

Mary had been being bitten by John

Mary hadn’t been being bitten by John

Had Mary been being bitten by John?

What had been being done by John?

Who had Mary been being bitten by?

Who had been being bitten by John?

9) Future

Aktif

John will bite Mary

John won’t bite Mary

Will John bite Mary?

What will John do?

Who will bite Mary?

Who will John bite?



Pasif

Mary will be bitten by John

Mary won’t be bitten by John

Will Mary be bitten by John?

What will be done by John?

Who will Mary be bitten by?

Who will be bitten by John?

10) Future continuous

Aktif

John will be biting Mary

John won’t be biting Mary

Will John be biting Mary?

What will John be doing?

Who will be biting Mary?

Who will John be biting?



Pasif

Mary will be being bitten by John

Mary won’t be being bitten by John

Will Mary be being bitten by John?

What will be being done by John?

Who will Mary be being bitten by?

Who will be being bitten by John?

11) Future perfect

Aktif

John will have bitten Mary

John won’t have bitten Mary

Will John have bitten Mary?

What will John have done?

Who will have bitten Mary?

Who will John have bitten?



Pasif

Mary will have been bitten by John

Mary won’t have been bitten by John

Will Mary have been bitten by John?

What will have been done by John?

Who will Mary have been bitten by?

Who will have been bitten by John?

12) Future perfect continuous

Aktif

John will have been biting Mary

John won’t have been biting Mary

Will John have been biting Mary?

What will John have been doing?

Who will have been biting Mary?

Who will John have been biting?



Pasif

Mary will have been being bitten by John

Mary won’t have been being bitten by John

Will Mary have been being bitten by John?

What will have been being done by John?

Who will Mary have been being bitten by?

Who will have been being bitten by John?

Kata-kata kerja transitif kadang-kadang mempunyai arti pasif walaupun bentuk kalimatnya adalah aktif :

a) Dengan komplemen

Sugar tastes sweet (pasif: sugar is sweet when it is tasted). Gula manis rasanya (gula manis bila

dirasakan)

b) Tanpa komplemen

The books is printing (pasif: the book is being printed). Buku itu sedang dicetak

The cows are milking (pasif: the cows are being milked). Sapi-sapi itu sedang diperah

Kesimpulan :

TENSES


ACTIVE


PASSIVE

Simple Present

Present Continuous

Present Perfect

Past Tense

Past Continuous

Simple Future

Be going to

Past perfect

Future perfect


Mary

Mary

Mary

Mary

Mary

Mary

Mary Mary

Mary


Helps

is helping

has helped

helped

was helping

will help

is going to help

had helped

will have helped


John

John

John

John

John

John


is helped

is being helped

has been helped

was helped

was being helped

will be helped

is going to be helped

had been helped

will have been helped

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